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The Different Types Of Process For Ball Forging

Ball forging process

Impression Die Forging For Balls

Impression die forging pounds or presses metal between two dies (called tooling) that contain a precut profile of the desired part. Parts from a few ounces to 60,000 lbs. can be made using this process. Some of the smaller parts are actually forged cold.

Process Capabilities

Commonly referred to as closed-die forging, impression-die forging of steel, aluminum, titanium, and other alloys can produce an almost limitless variety of 3-D shapes that range in weight from mere ounces up to more than 25 tons. Impression-die forgings are routinely produced on hydraulic presses, mechanical presses, and hammers, with capacities up to 50,000 tons, 20,000 tons, and 50,000 lbs. respectively.

As the name implies, two or more dies containing impressions of the part shape are brought together as forging stock undergoes plastic deformation. Because metal flow is restricted by the die contours, this process can yield more complex shapes and closer tolerances than open-die forging processes. Additional flexibility in forming both symmetrical and non-symmetrical shapes comes from various performing operations (sometimes bending) prior to forging in finisher dies.

Cold Forging

Most forging is done as hot work, at temperatures up to 2300 degrees F, however, a variation of impression die forging is cold forging. Cold forging encompasses many processes — bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusions, and more, to yield a diverse range of part shapes. The temperature of metals being cold forged may range from room temperature to several hundred degrees.

Process Capabilities

Cold forging encompasses many processes bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusion, punching, thread rolling, and more to yield a diverse range of part shapes. These include various shaft-like components, cup-shaped geometry, hollow parts with stems and shafts, all kinds of upset (headed) and bent configurations, as well as combinations.

Most recently, parts with the radial flow like round configurations with center flanges, rectangular parts, and non-axisymmetric parts with 3- and 6-fold symmetry have been produced by warm extrusion. With cold forging of steel rod, wire, or bar, shaft-like parts with 3-plane bends and headed design features are not uncommon.

Typical parts are most cost-effective in the range of 10 lbs. or less; symmetrical parts up to 7 lbs. readily lend themselves to automated processing. Material options range from lower-alloy and carbon steels to 300 and 400-series stainless, selected aluminum alloys, brass, and bronze.

There are times when warm forging practices are selected over cold forging, especially for higher carbon grades of steel or where in-process anneals can be eliminated.

Open Die Forging

Open die forging is performed between flat dies with no precut profiles is the dies. Movement of the workpiece.

Process Capabilities

Open-die forging can produce forgings from a few pounds up to more than 150 tons. Called open-die because the metal is not confined laterally by impression dies during forging, this process progressively works the starting stock into the desired shape, most commonly between flat-faced dies. In practice, open-die forging comprises many process variations, permitting an extremely broad range of shapes and sizes to be produced. In fact, when design criteria dictate optimum structural integrity for a huge metal component, the sheer size capability of open-die forging makes it the clear process choice over non-forging alternatives. At the high end of the size range, open-die forgings are limited only by the size of the starting stock, namely, the largest ingot that can be cast.

What are the advantages of forging over casting for high-strength steel?

Forging is a process in which high-strength steels are shaped by applying compressive forces to the material while it is in a heated, plastic state. There are several advantages to using forging over casting for high-strength steels:

  1. Improved mechanical properties: Forging can improve the mechanical properties of high-strength steels, such as increased strength, toughness, and fatigue resistance, due to the deformation and work hardening that occurs during the forging process.
  2. Dimensional accuracy: Forging can produce parts with closer tolerances and improved dimensional accuracy compared to casting, which can result in better fit and performance.
  3. Improved surface finish: Forging can produce a smoother and more uniform surface finish compared to casting, which can reduce the need for post-processing and improve the overall quality of the finished product.
  4. Increased design flexibility: Forging allows for more design flexibility, as complex shapes and features can be formed more easily compared to casting.
  5. Improved fatigue life: Forging can improve the fatigue life of high-strength steels by introducing beneficial residual stresses into the material, which can help to prevent crack initiation and propagation.

However, it is important to note that forging is generally more expensive and time-consuming compared to casting, and may not be suitable for all applications.

Different types of steel are used in forging material step-by-step information.

There are many different types of steel that can be used in the forging process, each with its own unique properties and characteristics. Here are some common types of steel used in forging, along with a brief description of each:

  1. Carbon steel: Carbon steel is a type of steel that contains a small percentage of carbon, typically less than 2%. It is strong, tough, and ductile, making it ideal for forging applications that require high strength and impact resistance.
  2. Alloy steel: Alloy steel is a type of steel that contains additional alloying elements, such as manganese, chromium, or nickel, to improve its mechanical properties. It is typically stronger and more wear-resistant compared to carbon steel, making it suitable for applications that require high strength and toughness.
  3. Stainless steel: Stainless steel is a type of steel that contains at least 10% chromium, which gives it excellent corrosion resistance. It is also strong, tough, and ductile, making it suitable for forging applications that require these properties.
  4. Tool steel: Tool steel is a type of steel that is specifically designed for use in tooling and cutting applications. It is typically high in carbon and alloying elements, such as tungsten or molybdenum, to improve its wear resistance and toughness.
  5. Maraging steel: Maraging steel is a type of steel that contains a high percentage of cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum, which gives it exceptional strength and toughness. It is typically used in applications that require high strength and fatigue resistance, such as aerospace and defense components.

To forge these types of steel, the material is typically heated to a temperature above its recrystallization temperature and then shaped using a series of compressive forces. The specific forging process used will depend on the type and size of the steel being forged, as well as the desired end product.

What is the difference between a forging and stamping process?

Forging is heated metal to a malleable condition and hammered into a basic shape. Many finished parts partially retain their forged finish but are machined on usable surfaces, For Example A pipe wrench is forged, and the handle is forged-finished, but the gripping action is machined.

Stamping dies generally stamp metal at ambient temperatures. Example: Rifle magazines are normally stamped from sheet metal without any heat assist; however, I have worked in machine shops both building progressive stamping dies and operating them praying for heat on winter days.

Where can I buy the forge valve balls?

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